Truffle species



TUBER MELANOSPORUM


Or black winter truffle, also known as Périgord truffle. This variety has wild and cultivated truffles. World production of this variety is concentrated in Spain, Italy and France, producing around 90% of Tuber Melanosporum. Black and winter truffles have different sizes, ranging from a pea to the size of a tennis ball, are rarely found and single pieces reaching a weight of about 1 kg. This variety is covered with brown-black warts with a reddish base. Its interior is greyish-brown or purple-black and marbled with thin whitish "veins". It has a strong, intense and constant aroma. This truffle is used for cooking because it keeps its aroma longest and can be kept dry. The black winter truffle inhabits the temperate climate zone, grows in the roots of oak, hazel and black hornbeam, prefers limestone terrains. Maturity reaches the months from December to March. The price of this variety reaches a price of 1000 euros per kilogram. Not found in Bulgaria, the actual yields of this species in Western Europe are from cultivated saplings.

TUBER MAGNATUM


This is the so-called White Truffle, also known as truffles from Alba or Piedmont. This is a very rare variety. This makes the white truffle, the most expensive agent among the truffles. Depending on the harvest, the price may reach up to $ 4000 per kilo. It is located in Central Italy, Southern France, Romania, Harvatska and Bulgaria. There are several wonderful specimens on the Danube River. Piedmont and the hills of Lange and Montferrato are the "homeland" of this variety. This variety grows from September to December / according to the region it is possible to withdraw the ripening period by several weeks /. The white truffle reaches a different size, from walnut to fist (5 to 12 cm). They have a smooth velvety surface and a soft finish, and their color overflows from pale ocher to dark cream and in some cases also greenish. Its core or "gleba" is dark, grayish-yellow or reddish-brown, with white stitches. It grows to a depth of about 30 cm, depending on rainfall during the year. Its aroma resembles a mixture of methane gas and garlic. It is most often consumed, shredded on the favorite dish. This is a very delicate truffle, its durability is only a few days. Every year an auction is held in Alba, the castle of Grinzane Cavour. There are presented the best specimens for the season and their price is determined individually. It is found in small quantities in Bulgaria, inhabits certain areas.

TUBER AESTIVUM


Tuber Aestivum or Black Summer Truffle, also called "Truffe de la Saint-Jean". Outwardly it looks like a black winter truffle covered with warts, a beige core with white marble veins. Its flavor is very different and delicate, slightly walnut, very good choice for testing new recipes. This truffle variety grows throughout Europe during the months from May to September. They are most fond of squirrels and other small mammals, and they are involved in the process of developing the truffle by spreading its spores. The behavior of these animals can also be a reference point where exactly these truffles should be sought. Mammals living in holes, such as squirrels and some insects, are involved in the process of developing the truffle by spreading its spores. Its price varies according to the season from 200 to 600 euros per kilogram. It occurs in Bulgaria in large quantities, in the months: May, June, July and August.

TUBER UNCINATUM



or Burgundy. This is a variety of Tuber Aestivum., Ripening from the beginning of October to the end of January. It has a stronger distinctive flavor and aroma than black summer truffle. Its heart is darker brown than the summer truffle. Meets in Bulgaria in large quantities in the months: September, October, November and December.

 

TUBER MESENTERICUM


Or more Bagnoli truffle. It grows and reaches maturity at the same time as Tuber uncinatum. This type of truffles are small, their size rarely exceeds those of the egg, reaching from 2 to 5 cm. The bark is black with large warts with pointed or flat tops. They have irregular circular shapes with larger or smaller incisions, which in their incision give a kidney appearance, the inside is gray-brown, lined with slightly wavy veins. The most characteristic feature is its penetrating smell of phenol and tar, like immature bitter almonds. This taste remains and after cooking, many people do not like the strong flavor and residual taste of Bagnoli truffle. However, this truffle is present in some dishes. It is not a common species, but can be found under oak, birch, hazel and beech. It only meets in Europe. Extremely difficult to find in the market. It is found in Bulgaria in small quantities and inhabits certain areas.

TUBER BRUMALE


Winter truffle very similar in appearance to Tuber melanosporum. Winter Truffle ripens at the same time and inhabits the same areas as Tuber melanosporum but prefers in wet places. Usually rounded or with weak protrusions, with a black or dark lawn bark with very tightly located clear warts with dents at the apex points



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